There are many similarities between Trader Joe's, the American discounter owned by Germany's Aldi, and Fresh & Easy, the grocery chain plonked down in the American West five years ago by Britain's Tesco.
Both chains carry limited assortments, for instance. And both skew their selection toward private label.
But while Trader Joe's is admired and successful, Fresh & Easy has cost Tesco a billion pounds, is losing money and may soon be shuttered.
Here are a few reasons why these two seemingly identical European grocers ended up with such different results.